Gynecology & Infertility 

Child Pages

Abnormal Pap Smears

A Pap test, or Pap smear, is part of a woman's annual wellness exam. The Pap test involves extracting a small sample of cells from the cervix. These cells are examined, in a lab, for abnormal cell changes. The Pap test is used in diagnosing cervical cancer and human papilloma virus, or HPV.

Annual Exam

The annual gynecological exam, also known as a gynecological well-visit, is a yearly preventative and diagnostic examination which serves to maintain the wellness of female patients, as well as monitor any ongoing physical and hormonal conditions. This annual visit is an opportunity for doctors to counsel patients about maintaining a healthy lifestyle and minimizing health risks. The annual gynecological exam includes a routine breast and pelvic exam, and may include a screening for sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. A Pap test may also be performed depending on the age and sexual history of the patient. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women begin annual pelvic exams...

Breast Exam

Breast exams are physical and visual inspections of the breasts. They are an important part of an OBGYN checkup because breast exams can help identify any unusual lumps or suspicious growths around the breasts. In addition, a doctor can teach a patient how to perform these exams at home every month in order to recognize any changes on their own breasts. Breast exams can be a very useful tool for the early diagnosis of breast cancer.

Transvaginal Ultrasound

A transvaginal ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging test used for examining female reproductive organs. It may be performed to diagnose the cause of various abnormalities, including menstrual irregularities, pelvic pain, infertility, and uterine fibroids, or it may be performed to monitor a fetus' growth during the early stages of pregnancy.

Female Infertility

Couples are considered to have infertility problems if they have been unable to conceive after a prolonged period, usually a year, of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse. Infertility may be attributed to the man, the woman, or both partners. When a female cause of infertility is determined, which occurs about one-third of the time, there are many measures that can be taken to help the couple conceive. Single women who are having trouble becoming pregnant may also seek medical evaluation.


Menopause is the time in a woman's life when her menstrual period has stopped. Menopause is caused by a decrease in the ovaries' production of the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which eventually results in the ovaries' ceasing to produce eggs, and the end of menstruation.


A mammogram is an X-ray examination of the breast. It is performed to detect breast cancer in its earliest stages, often before any signs or symptoms of the disease are present.


Menstruation is the monthly vaginal bleeding a woman experiences as the uterine lining is shed. Every month, an ovary releases an egg that travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus. If the egg is not fertilized, the egg and lining of the uterus are shed, resulting in menstruation. The average menstrual period lasts from 3 to 5 days, although it can vary from person to person and from month to month.

Pregnancy Testing

Pregnancy testing is performed to determine whether or not a woman has a fertilized embryo in her uterus. A pregnancy test detects the presence of the hormone human chorionic gonadoptropin (hCG) in the body. This hormone is usually only produced when an egg has successfully been fertilized and attaches to the uterine wall. Levels of hCG rise quickly and within a matter of days after a woman becomes pregnant. There are two types of pregnancy tests that are commonly performed; one uses a sample of urine, and the other, a sample of blood. Both tests measure the levels of hCG in a woman's body.


Ovulation occurs when an egg is released from an ovary. Once released, it enters one of the fallopian tubes and travels toward the uterus. If the egg is fertilized by sperm, it implants in the uterine wall (endometrium), and pregnancy occurs. If the egg remains unfertilized, the uterine lining is shed during menstruation. Ovulation usually takes place between the 10th and 14th days of a menstrual cycle, but varies among women or from month to month.


Preeclampsia, previously known as toxemia, is the sudden increase in blood pressure of a pregnant woman. If this condition occurs it is usually by the 20th week of pregnancy. It can affect the woman's kidneys, liver and brain. A more severe form of preeclampsia, eclampsia can cause a pregnant women to have seizures.

Prenatal Consultation

A prenatal consultation serves as an opportunity to meet with the doctor to discuss the details of pregnancy. Regular doctor's visits are recommended and will allow for professional monitoring of the mother and baby's health. These visits also provide time to develop a trusting relationship and discuss any potential complications that may affect the patient and her baby.

Prenatal Testing

Prenatal care is essential to ensure the healthy growth and development of a fetus. Women who receive prenatal care have healthier babies, are less likely to deliver prematurely, and have fewer pregnancy-related problems. Prenatal care should begin as early as possible. Doctor visits are usually monthly, and become more frequent as the pregnancy progresses. Routine tests at these visits include urine testing and blood-pressure checks. In addition to routine tests, there are several prenatal tests that are performed at specific times during the pregnancy. They are administered to monitor the health of the fetus and, in some cases, the mother.

Reproductive Endocrinology

Reproductive endocrinology is a subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology that addresses hormonal functioning as it relates to reproduction and infertility. In addition to treating infertility issues, reproductive endocrinologists are trained to evaluate and treat other hormonal dysfunctions. Many couples or individuals facing infertility problems choose to see a reproductive endocrinologist. This highly skilled professional can identify factors that may be causing infertility and work with patients to select appropriate methods of treatment.

STD Testing

A sexually transmitted disease, or STD, is a disease or infection that is spread from one person to another through sexual contact. Most STDs are caused by bacteria, parasites or viruses, that are transmitted through contact with the genitals, skin, mouth, rectum, or bodily fluids. STDs can cause problems ranging from mild irritation to severe pain. Left untreated, some STDs can cause illness, cancer, infertility or harm to a fetus during pregnancy